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Introduction to Robotics Oussama Khatib pdf
Robotics is a fascinating field that combines science, engineering, and art. It is also a rapidly growing and evolving discipline that has many applications and challenges in various domains. In this article, we will explore what robotics is, who is Oussama Khatib, what is his course on introduction to robotics, and how to access the pdf version of the course.
Introduction to robotics oussama khatib pdf
What is robotics?
Robotics is the study of robots, which are machines that can perform tasks autonomously or semi-autonomously by sensing, planning, and acting in the physical world. Robotics is an interdisciplinary field that draws from many branches of science and engineering, such as mathematics, physics, computer science, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, control engineering, artificial intelligence, machine learning, computer vision, and human-robot interaction.
Definition and scope of robotics
There is no single agreed-upon definition of robotics, as different researchers and practitioners may have different perspectives and goals. However, one possible definition is given by the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (RAS), which states that robotics is "the science and technology dealing with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots" . A robot is defined by RAS as "an electro-mechanical or bio-mechanical device or group of devices that can be programmed to perform tasks" . The scope of robotics covers not only the physical robots themselves, but also their software, hardware, sensors, actuators, controllers, algorithms, models, simulations, interfaces, environments, interactions, behaviors, ethics, and social implications.
History and evolution of robotics
The word robot was coined by Czech writer Karel Capek in his 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which depicted a dystopian future where artificial workers rebel against their human creators. The word robot comes from the Czech word robota, which means forced labor or drudgery. However, the concept of creating machines that can mimic human or animal actions dates back to ancient times. For example, some of the earliest examples of automata are found in ancient Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Arabia. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, many mechanical devices were invented for entertainment or religious purposes. In the 18th and 19th centuries, industrialization and scientific discoveries led to the development of more complex machines that could perform specific tasks or functions. In the 20th century, advances in electronics, computing, communication, artificial intelligence, and materials enabled the creation of modern robots that can sense their environment, process information, and execute actions with varying degrees of autonomy and intelligence. Some of the milestones in the history of robotics include: - The first programmable robot was built by George Devol in 1954. It was called Unimate and was used for industrial applications such as welding and assembly. - The first mobile robot was built by Shakey in 1966 at Stanford Research Institute. It was able to navigate and interact with its surroundings using a camera, a laser range finder, and a bump sensor. - The first humanoid robot was built by WABOT-1 in 1973 at Waseda University. It had two arms, two legs, and a head, and could walk, communicate, and play the piano. - The first space robot was built by Canadarm in 1981. It was a robotic arm that was used to manipulate payloads and perform tasks on the space shuttle and the International Space Station. - The first surgical robot was built by PUMA 560 in 1985. It was used to perform a needle biopsy on a human patient under CT guidance. - The first social robot was built by Kismet in 1997 at MIT. It was a robotic head that could express emotions and engage in social interactions with humans using facial expressions, eye movements, and vocalizations. - The first humanoid robot that could run was built by ASIMO in 2005 by Honda. It could walk, run, climb stairs, kick a ball, and perform other human-like motions. - The first autonomous car that could drive in urban traffic was built by Stanley in 2005 by Stanford University. It won the DARPA Grand Challenge, a competition for driverless vehicles sponsored by the US Department of Defense. - The first robot that could learn from human demonstrations was built by PR2 in 2010 by Willow Garage. It could perform tasks such as folding laundry, opening doors, and fetching drinks by observing and imitating human actions. - The first robot that could win a game of Jeopardy! was built by Watson in 2011 by IBM. It could answer natural language questions on various topics using a large database of knowledge and natural language processing techniques. - The first robot that could land on a comet was built by Philae in 2014 by the European Space Agency. It was part of the Rosetta mission, which aimed to study the origin and evolution of the solar system.
Applications and challenges of robotics
Robotics has many applications in various domains, such as manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, transportation, health care, education, entertainment, military, exploration, and service. Robots can perform tasks that are dull, dirty, dangerous, difficult, or distant for humans. Robots can also augment human capabilities or provide companionship or assistance. Some examples of robots that are used or being developed for different applications are: - Industrial robots: These are robots that are used for manufacturing processes such as welding, painting, assembling, picking, packing, and inspecting. They are usually fixed or mounted on a base and have one or more arms with grippers or tools. They can operate with high speed, precision, and repeatability. Some examples of industrial robots are ABB IRB 1200, Fanuc M-710iC/50E, and KUKA KR AGILUS. - Agricultural robots: These are robots that are used for farming tasks such as planting, weeding, harvesting, pruning, and spraying. They can reduce labor costs, increase productivity, and improve quality and safety. Some examples of agricultural robots are AgBot II, Ecorobotix, and Harvest CROO Robotics. - Mining robots: These are robots that are used for mining operations such as exploration, drilling, excavation, transportation, and processing. They can work in harsh and hazardous environments that are inaccessible or unsafe for humans. Some examples of mining robots are Komatsu Autonomous Haulage System, Robominer, and Wall-E. - Construction robots: These are robots that are used for construction activities such as demolition, bricklaying, concrete spraying, welding, and inspection. They can increase efficiency, accuracy, and quality while reducing waste and risks. Some examples of construction robots are Husqvarna DXR 140, SAM100, and Tybot. - Transportation robots: These are robots that are used for moving people or goods from one place to another. They can be autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles that use sensors, cameras, radars, lidars, GPS, and maps to navigate and avoid obstacles. They can improve safety, convenience, and sustainability. Some examples of transportation robots are Waymo self-driving car, Tesla Autopilot system, and Amazon Prime Air drone. - Health care robots: These are robots that are used for medical purposes such as diagnosis, surgery, rehabilitation, therapy, and assistance. They can enhance human skills or provide support or care to patients or elderly people. Some examples of health care robots are da Vinci surgical system, ReWalk exoskeleton, and Paro therapeutic robot. - Education robots: These are robots that are used for teaching or learning purposes such as tutoring, mentoring, coaching, or facilitating. They can provide personalized feedback or guidance or stimulate curiosity or creativity. Some examples of education robots are NAO humanoid robot, KIBO robotics kit, and Cozmo robot. Cozmo is a cute and smart toy robot that can interact with its owner and the environment using artificial intelligence, computer vision, and emotion recognition. Cozmo was developed by Anki, a company that specializes in consumer robotics and artificial intelligence products.
Who is Oussama Khatib?
Oussama Khatib is a professor of computer science at Stanford University and the director of the Stanford Robotics Lab. He is also a co-founder of the International Foundation of Robotics Research (IFRR) and the president of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (RAS). He is a world-renowned expert in robotics, especially in human-centered robotics, human-friendly robot design, dynamic simulations, and haptic interactions.
Biography and education
Oussama Khatib was born in Lebanon in 1954. He received his B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette in 1977, his M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University in 1979, and his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Supélec in France in 1980. He joined Stanford University as an assistant professor of computer science in 1986 and became a full professor in 1995. He has also been a visiting professor at several universities around the world, such as MIT, UC Berkeley, ETH Zurich, KAIST, and NUS.
Research interests and achievements
Oussama Khatib's research interests span various aspects of robotics, such as robot design, modeling, control, motion planning, manipulation, haptics, human-robot interaction, and artificial intelligence. He has made significant contributions to the fields of robot dynamics, force control, operational space control, vision-based control, haptic rendering, virtual reality, teleoperation, and cooperative manipulation. He has also led several projects on developing novel robotic systems for various applications, such as humanoid robots, underwater robots, space robots, surgical robots, and personal robots. Some of his notable projects include: - Ocean One: A bimanual underwater humanoid robot that can perform dexterous manipulation tasks in deep water environments. - K-Team: A group of humanoid robots that can cooperate and coordinate with each other to perform complex tasks such as soccer playing or disaster response. - STAIR: A mobile manipulator robot that can navigate indoor environments and perform tasks such as fetching objects or opening doors. - Haptic Humanoid: A humanoid robot that can provide realistic haptic feedback to a human operator using force sensors and actuators. - Personal Robotics Program: A program that aims to create robots that can assist humans in everyday tasks such as household chores or entertainment. Oussama Khatib has published over 400 papers in journals and conferences and has received many awards and honors for his research excellence and leadership. Some of his awards include: - The IEEE RAS Pioneer Award (2000) - The IEEE RAS George Saridis Leadership Award (2004) - The IEEE RAS Distinguished Service Award (2005) - The JARA Award for Research Excellence (2010) - The IEEE RAS Distinguished Lecturer Award (2011) - The King-Sun Fu Memorial Award (2014) - The IEEE RAS Lifetime Achievement Award (2015)
Teaching and outreach activities
Oussama Khatib is not only a prominent researcher but also a dedicated teacher and mentor. He has taught many courses on robotics at Stanford University and other institutions, and has supervised over 50 Ph.D. students and postdoctoral fellows. He has also been involved in many outreach activities to promote robotics education and awareness among the public, especially young students. Some of his outreach activities include: - Co-founding the Robot Block Party, an annual event that showcases various robotic technologies and applications to the public. - Co-founding the African Robotics Network (AFRON), a community that supports robotics education and research in Africa. - Co-founding the Robot Art Competition, a contest that challenges students to create artistic works using robots. - Co-founding the Robot Academy, an online platform that provides free video lectures on robotics topics by experts from around the world.
What is CS223A - Introduction to Robotics?
CS223A - Introduction to Robotics is a course offered by Stanford University's Computer Science Department and taught by Oussama Khatib. The course provides an introduction to physics-based design, modeling, and control of robotic systems, in particular of robotic arms. The course covers basic methodologies and tools, and builds a solid foundation that will enable students to move forward in both robotic research and applications.