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Learn Robotics with Oussama Khatib: Download his pdf Course Materials

Introduction to Robotics Oussama Khatib pdf

Robotics is a fascinating field that combines science, engineering, and art. It is also a rapidly growing and evolving discipline that has many applications and challenges in various domains. In this article, we will explore what robotics is, who is Oussama Khatib, what is his course on introduction to robotics, and how to access the pdf version of the course.

Introduction to robotics oussama khatib pdf

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What is robotics?

Robotics is the study of robots, which are machines that can perform tasks autonomously or semi-autonomously by sensing, planning, and acting in the physical world. Robotics is an interdisciplinary field that draws from many branches of science and engineering, such as mathematics, physics, computer science, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, control engineering, artificial intelligence, machine learning, computer vision, and human-robot interaction.

Definition and scope of robotics

There is no single agreed-upon definition of robotics, as different researchers and practitioners may have different perspectives and goals. However, one possible definition is given by the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (RAS), which states that robotics is "the science and technology dealing with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots" . A robot is defined by RAS as "an electro-mechanical or bio-mechanical device or group of devices that can be programmed to perform tasks" . The scope of robotics covers not only the physical robots themselves, but also their software, hardware, sensors, actuators, controllers, algorithms, models, simulations, interfaces, environments, interactions, behaviors, ethics, and social implications.

History and evolution of robotics

The word robot was coined by Czech writer Karel Capek in his 1920 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which depicted a dystopian future where artificial workers rebel against their human creators. The word robot comes from the Czech word robota, which means forced labor or drudgery. However, the concept of creating machines that can mimic human or animal actions dates back to ancient times. For example, some of the earliest examples of automata are found in ancient Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Arabia. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, many mechanical devices were invented for entertainment or religious purposes. In the 18th and 19th centuries, industrialization and scientific discoveries led to the development of more complex machines that could perform specific tasks or functions. In the 20th century, advances in electronics, computing, communication, artificial intelligence, and materials enabled the creation of modern robots that can sense their environment, process information, and execute actions with varying degrees of autonomy and intelligence. Some of the milestones in the history of robotics include: - The first programmable robot was built by George Devol in 1954. It was called Unimate and was used for industrial applications such as welding and assembly. - The first mobile robot was built by Shakey in 1966 at Stanford Research Institute. It was able to navigate and interact with its surroundings using a camera, a laser range finder, and a bump sensor. - The first humanoid robot was built by WABOT-1 in 1973 at Waseda University. It had two arms, two legs, and a head, and could walk, communicate, and play the piano. - The first space robot was built by Canadarm in 1981. It was a robotic arm that was used to manipulate payloads and perform tasks on the space shuttle and the International Space Station. - The first surgical robot was built by PUMA 560 in 1985. It was used to perform a needle biopsy on a human patient under CT guidance. - The first social robot was built by Kismet in 1997 at MIT. It was a robotic head that could express emotions and engage in social interactions with humans using facial expressions, eye movements, and vocalizations. - The first humanoid robot that could run was built by ASIMO in 2005 by Honda. It could walk, run, climb stairs, kick a ball, and perform other human-like motions. - The first autonomous car that could drive in urban traffic was built by Stanley in 2005 by Stanford University. It won the DARPA Grand Challenge, a competition for driverless vehicles sponsored by the US Department of Defense. - The first robot that could learn from human demonstrations was built by PR2 in 2010 by Willow Garage. It could perform tasks such as folding laundry, opening doors, and fetching drinks by observing and imitating human actions. - The first robot that could win a game of Jeopardy! was built by Watson in 2011 by IBM. It could answer natural language questions on various topics using a large database of knowledge and natural language processing techniques. - The first robot that could land on a comet was built by Philae in 2014 by the European Space Agency. It was part of the Rosetta mission, which aimed to study the origin and evolution of the solar system.

Applications and challenges of robotics

Robotics has many applications in various domains, such as manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, transportation, health care, education, entertainment, military, exploration, and service. Robots can perform tasks that are dull, dirty, dangerous, difficult, or distant for humans. Robots can also augment human capabilities or provide companionship or assistance. Some examples of robots that are used or being developed for different applications are: - Industrial robots: These are robots that are used for manufacturing processes such as welding, painting, assembling, picking, packing, and inspecting. They are usually fixed or mounted on a base and have one or more arms with grippers or tools. They can operate with high speed, precision, and repeatability. Some examples of industrial robots are ABB IRB 1200, Fanuc M-710iC/50E, and KUKA KR AGILUS. - Agricultural robots: These are robots that are used for farming tasks such as planting, weeding, harvesting, pruning, and spraying. They can reduce labor costs, increase productivity, and improve quality and safety. Some examples of agricultural robots are AgBot II, Ecorobotix, and Harvest CROO Robotics. - Mining robots: These are robots that are used for mining operations such as exploration, drilling, excavation, transportation, and processing. They can work in harsh and hazardous environments that are inaccessible or unsafe for humans. Some examples of mining robots are Komatsu Autonomous Haulage System, Robominer, and Wall-E. - Construction robots: These are robots that are used for construction activities such as demolition, bricklaying, concrete spraying, welding, and inspection. They can increase efficiency, accuracy, and quality while reducing waste and risks. Some examples of construction robots are Husqvarna DXR 140, SAM100, and Tybot. - Transportation robots: These are robots that are used for moving people or goods from one place to another. They can be autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles that use sensors, cameras, radars, lidars, GPS, and maps to navigate and avoid obstacles. They can improve safety, convenience, and sustainability. Some examples of transportation robots are Waymo self-driving car, Tesla Autopilot system, and Amazon Prime Air drone. - Health care robots: These are robots that are used for medical purposes such as diagnosis, surgery, rehabilitation, therapy, and assistance. They can enhance human skills or provide support or care to patients or elderly people. Some examples of health care robots are da Vinci surgical system, ReWalk exoskeleton, and Paro therapeutic robot. - Education robots: These are robots that are used for teaching or learning purposes such as tutoring, mentoring, coaching, or facilitating. They can provide personalized feedback or guidance or stimulate curiosity or creativity. Some examples of education robots are NAO humanoid robot, KIBO robotics kit, and Cozmo robot. Cozmo is a cute and smart toy robot that can interact with its owner and the environment using artificial intelligence, computer vision, and emotion recognition. Cozmo was developed by Anki, a company that specializes in consumer robotics and artificial intelligence products.

Who is Oussama Khatib?

Oussama Khatib is a professor of computer science at Stanford University and the director of the Stanford Robotics Lab. He is also a co-founder of the International Foundation of Robotics Research (IFRR) and the president of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society (RAS). He is a world-renowned expert in robotics, especially in human-centered robotics, human-friendly robot design, dynamic simulations, and haptic interactions.

Biography and education

Oussama Khatib was born in Lebanon in 1954. He received his B.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette in 1977, his M.S. degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University in 1979, and his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Supélec in France in 1980. He joined Stanford University as an assistant professor of computer science in 1986 and became a full professor in 1995. He has also been a visiting professor at several universities around the world, such as MIT, UC Berkeley, ETH Zurich, KAIST, and NUS.

Research interests and achievements

Oussama Khatib's research interests span various aspects of robotics, such as robot design, modeling, control, motion planning, manipulation, haptics, human-robot interaction, and artificial intelligence. He has made significant contributions to the fields of robot dynamics, force control, operational space control, vision-based control, haptic rendering, virtual reality, teleoperation, and cooperative manipulation. He has also led several projects on developing novel robotic systems for various applications, such as humanoid robots, underwater robots, space robots, surgical robots, and personal robots. Some of his notable projects include: - Ocean One: A bimanual underwater humanoid robot that can perform dexterous manipulation tasks in deep water environments. - K-Team: A group of humanoid robots that can cooperate and coordinate with each other to perform complex tasks such as soccer playing or disaster response. - STAIR: A mobile manipulator robot that can navigate indoor environments and perform tasks such as fetching objects or opening doors. - Haptic Humanoid: A humanoid robot that can provide realistic haptic feedback to a human operator using force sensors and actuators. - Personal Robotics Program: A program that aims to create robots that can assist humans in everyday tasks such as household chores or entertainment. Oussama Khatib has published over 400 papers in journals and conferences and has received many awards and honors for his research excellence and leadership. Some of his awards include: - The IEEE RAS Pioneer Award (2000) - The IEEE RAS George Saridis Leadership Award (2004) - The IEEE RAS Distinguished Service Award (2005) - The JARA Award for Research Excellence (2010) - The IEEE RAS Distinguished Lecturer Award (2011) - The King-Sun Fu Memorial Award (2014) - The IEEE RAS Lifetime Achievement Award (2015)

Teaching and outreach activities

Oussama Khatib is not only a prominent researcher but also a dedicated teacher and mentor. He has taught many courses on robotics at Stanford University and other institutions, and has supervised over 50 Ph.D. students and postdoctoral fellows. He has also been involved in many outreach activities to promote robotics education and awareness among the public, especially young students. Some of his outreach activities include: - Co-founding the Robot Block Party, an annual event that showcases various robotic technologies and applications to the public. - Co-founding the African Robotics Network (AFRON), a community that supports robotics education and research in Africa. - Co-founding the Robot Art Competition, a contest that challenges students to create artistic works using robots. - Co-founding the Robot Academy, an online platform that provides free video lectures on robotics topics by experts from around the world.

What is CS223A - Introduction to Robotics?

CS223A - Introduction to Robotics is a course offered by Stanford University's Computer Science Department and taught by Oussama Khatib. The course provides an introduction to physics-based design, modeling, and control of robotic systems, in particular of robotic arms. The course covers basic methodologies and tools, and builds a solid foundation that will enable students to move forward in both robotic research and applications.

Course overview and objectives

The course consists of 20 lectures, 7 homework assignments, a midterm exam, and a final exam. The lectures are conducted in-person in Gates B1 and are also recorded and posted online. The homework assignments are due on Thursdays at 11:59 PM on Gradescope. The midterm exam and the final exam are in-class and closed-book. The course grading is based on the following weights: - Homework: 40% - Midterm: 25% - Final: 35% The course objectives are to enable students to: - Design a robot with an optimal workspace - Model a robot to sufficient precision - Implement and tune a robot motion controller that exposes desired behavior - Implement and tune a compliant robot motion/force controller that exposes desired behavior - Implement and tune a vision-based robot motion controller that is robust to noise - Assess limitations of traditional, model-based approaches, visualize these failure cases, and propose an approach on how they can be addressed

Course topics and materials

The course covers the following topics: - Spatial descriptions - Articulated body systems - Forward kinematics - Velocity propagation - Jacobians - Trajectory generation - Inverse kinematics and workspace - Robot dynamics - Joint control - Cartesian control - Operational space control - Force control - Vision-based control The course materials include: - Course reader: Available at the bookstore. - Website: All course materials will be shared through the Canvas page, including important class announcements from the teaching staff. - Discussion: Students can post questions or comments on Piazza, a platform for online discussion. - Code Lab: Students can use Code Lab, a graphical programming interface based on Scratch Blocks that Anki developed, to program Cozmo robots for the homework assignments.

Course assignments and grading

The course assignments are designed to help students apply the concepts learned in the lectures to practical problems involving robotic systems. The assignments consist of two parts: theoretical questions and programming tasks. The theoretical questions require students to derive equations, analyze models, or design controllers for various robotic scenarios. The programming tasks require students to use Code Lab to program Cozmo robots to perform tasks such as moving, picking, placing, or stacking objects. The assignments are graded based on the following criteria: - Correctness: The answers or programs should be correct and complete. - Clarity: The answers or programs should be clear and concise. - Creativity: The answers or programs should demonstrate originality or innovation.

How to access the pdf version of the course?

The pdf version of the course is a collection of files that contain the lecture slides, notes, transcripts, homework solutions, and exams from previous offerings of the course. The pdf version of the course can be useful for students who want to review the course materials offline or at their own pace. However, the pdf version of the course also has some drawbacks, such as being outdated, incomplete, or inconsistent with the current offering of the course. Therefore, students should always refer to the Canvas page for the most updated and accurate information about the course.

Benefits and drawbacks of pdf format

The pdf format is a file format that preserves the layout, fonts, images, and graphics of a document regardless of the software or device used to view it. The pdf format has some benefits, such as: - Compatibility: The pdf format can be opened by most devices and applications without losing quality or formatting. - Portability: The pdf format can be easily transferred or shared across different platforms or networks. - Security: The pdf format can be encrypted or password-protected to prevent unauthorized access or modification. The pdf format also has some drawbacks, such as: - Size: The pdf format can be large in size compared to other formats, especially if it contains many images or graphics. This can affect the storage space or download speed of the files. - Editability: The pdf format is not easy to edit or modify without specialized software or tools. This can limit the flexibility or customization of the files. - Interactivity: The pdf format does not support interactive features such as animations, videos, audios, or hyperlinks. This can reduce the engagement or functionality of the files.

Steps to download the pdf files from Stanford Engineering Everywhere

Stanford Engineering Everywhere (SEE) is a platform that provides free online access to some of Stanford University's engineering courses, including CS223A - Introduction to Robotics. SEE offers various formats of the course materials, such as videos, audio podcasts, and transcripts. Among these formats, the pdf files contain the lecture slides and notes that summarize the main points and concepts of each lecture. The pdf files can be downloaded from the SEE website by following these steps: - Go to - Click on the lecture title that you want to download - On the lecture page, scroll down to the bottom and click on "Download PDF" - Save the file to your desired location on your device Alternatively, you can also download all the pdf files for the course at once by following these steps: - Go to - Click on "Download Course Materials" on the right sidebar - On the download page, scroll down to the bottom and click on "Download PDF" - Save the zip file to your desired location on your device - Extract the zip file to access the individual pdf files

Alternatives to pdf format

While the pdf format can be convenient for offline viewing or printing, it may not be the best format for online learning or interactive exploration. Therefore, students may want to consider other formats that are available on the SEE website or elsewhere, such as: - Videos: The videos contain the recorded lectures that show the instructor's presentation and explanation of each topic. The videos can be streamed online or downloaded as mp4 files. The videos can be more engaging and dynamic than the pdf files, as they can show animations, demonstrations, or examples that are not possible in static slides. The videos can also help students to follow the instructor's pace and tone of voice, which can aid in comprehension and retention. - Audio podcasts: The audio podcasts contain the recorded lectures that only have the instructor's voice without any visuals. The audio podcasts can be streamed online or downloaded as mp3 files. The audio podcasts can be useful for students who prefer to listen rather than watch, or who want to review the lectures while doing other activities such as driving, walking, or exercising. - Transcripts: The transcripts contain the written text of each lecture that matches the instructor's speech. The transcripts can be viewed online or downloaded as txt files. The transcripts can be helpful for students who want to read rather than watch or listen, or who want to search for specific


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